Module Four Worksheet: Neurology and Endocrinology - Tutorials Magnet (2022)

HCM 205 Module Four Worksheet

Neurology and Endocrinology

Write the definition of the medical words.

•thymitis –

inflammationofthethymus

•adenoma -abenignepithelialtumorinwhichthecellsformrecognizableglandularstructuresorinwhichthecells arederivedfromglandularepithelium

•insulin –

a protein hormone that is synthesized in the pancreas from proinsulin and secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans

•glucocorticoid –

any of a group of corticosteroids (as cortisol or dexamethasone) that are involved especially in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, that tend to increase liver glycogen and blood sugar by increasing gluconeogenesis

•progesterone –

a female steroid sex hormone that is secreted by the corpus luteum to prepare the endometrium for implantation and later by the placenta during pregnancy to prevent rejection of the developing embryo or fetus

•hyperthyroidism –

an excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland

•hypothyroidism –

a deficient amount in activity of the thyroid gland

•CRF –

a substance secreted by the median eminence of the hypothalamus that regulates the release of ACTH by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

•FBS –

a determination of blood glucose levels after a 8 hour period of fasting

•catecholamines –

any of various amines (as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) that contain a dihydroxy benzene ring, that are derived from tyrosine, and that function as hormones or neurotransmitters or both

•hypoglossal nerve –

either of the 12th and final pair of cranial nerves which are motor nerves arising from the medulla oblongata and supplying muscles of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in higher vertebrates

•vestibulocochlear (acoustic) nerve –

either of the eighth pair of cranial nerves connecting the inner ear with the brain, transmitting impulses concerned with hearing and balance, and composed of the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve

•parasympathetic –

relating to the part of the automatic nervous system that counterbalances the action of the sympathetic nerves

•sympathetic –

relating to or denoting the part of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerves arising from ganglia near the middle part of the spinal cord, supplying the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands, and balancing the action of the parasympathetic nerves

•neurotransmitters –

a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure

•olfactory nerve –

each of the first pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the smell receptors in the mucous membrane of the nose

•trigeminal nerve –

each of the fifth and largest pair of cranial nerves, supplying the front part of the head and dividing into the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves

•abducens nerve –

each of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, supplying the muscles concerned with the lateral movement of the eyeballs

•oculomotor nerve –

each of the third pair of cranial nerves, supplying most of the muscles around and within the eyeballs

•optic nerve –

each of the second pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye

Word Surgery

Directions: Read the medical word. Break the medical word into its word parts and give the meaning of each word part. Then give the definition of the medical word.

•endocrine

Suffix and its meaning: -crin/o to secrete

Prefix and its meaning: endo- within

Medical word definition: the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatorysystemto be carried towards distant target organs

•acromegaly

Suffix and its meaning: -megaly enlargement, large

Combining form and its meaning: acr/o extremity

Medical word definition: abnormal growth of the hands, feet, and face, caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland

•hyperthyroidism

Suffix and its meaning: -ism condition

Prefix and its meaning: hyper- excessive

Root and its meaning: thyr thyroid, shield; -oid resemble

Medical word definition: overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in a rapid heartbeat and an increased rate of metabolism

•androgen

Suffix and its meaning: -gen formation, produce

Combining form and its meaning: andr/o man

Medical word definition: a male sex hormone, such as testosterone

•endocrinology

Suffix and its meaning: -logy study of

Prefix and its meaning: endr/o within

Combining form and its meaning: crin/o to secrete

Medical word definition: study of the endocrine system

•somatotropin

Suffix and its meaning: -in chemical

Combining form and its meaning: somat/o

Root and its meaning: trop turning

Medical word definition: growth stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

•hyperesthesia

Suffix and its meaning: -esthesia feeling

Prefix and its meaning: hyper- excessive

Medical word definition: increased feelings of sensory stimuli, such as pain, touch, or sound

•meningomyelocele

Suffix and its meaning: -cele hernia

Combining form and its meaning: mening/o membrane, meninges

Combining form and its meaning: myel/o spinal cord

Medical word definition: a protrusion of meninges and spinal cord through a defect in the spinal column

•neuritis

Suffix and its meaning: -itis inflammation

Root and its meaning: neur nerve

Medical word definition: inflammation of a nerve

•hydrocephalus

Suffix and its meaning: -us pertaining to

Prefix and its meaning: hydro- water

Root and its meaning: cephal head

Medical word definition: a condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain, typically in young children, enlarging the head and sometimes causing brain damage

•neurology

Suffix and its meaning: -logy study of

Combining form and its meaning: neur/o nerve

Medical word definition: study of the nervous system

•aphagia

Suffix and its meaning: -phagia to eat, swallow

Prefix and its meaning: a- lack of

Medical word definition: loss of lack of the ability to eat or swallow

Provide the correct medical term for each of the following:

•loss/lack of strength: asthenia

•excessive acidity of body fluids: acidosis

•pertaining to the cerebellum: cerebellar

•a clot that travels: embolism

•abnormally small head: microcephaly

•a nerve cell: neurocyte

•pertaining to the pancreas: pancreatic

•pertaining to touch: tactile

•also called antidiuretic hormone: vasopressin

•also called a CVA: stroke

•physician specializing in anesthesia: anesthesiologist

•inflammation of several nerves: neuritis

Abbreviation Matchup

Match the abbreviation to the definition. Select an answer from the column on the right and write the correct letter on the blank.

•basal metabolic rate H

•diabetes mellitus A

•growth hormone C

•glucose tolerance test B

•potassium I

•cerebral palsy F

•cerebrospinal fluid D

•centimeter J

•cerebrovascular accident G

•herniated disk syndrome E

Spelling Challenge

Spell each term correctly in the space provided.

Incorrect Spelling

Correct Spelling

•protein

•thyroid

•euthyroid

•adenoma

•obesity

•epilepsy

•cerebrum

•cerebellum

•autonomic nervous system

•coccygeal spinal nerves

Pronunciation

Provide the phonetic spelling of the terms below. In addition, using a recording tool, such as Vocaroo, record the following medical terms. For support using Vocaroo, refer to the Vocaroo Tutorial document.

Term

Phonetic Spelling

•steroidsstĕr′oid′

•hypophysishī-pŏf′ĭ-sĭs

•hypogonadismhī′pō-gō′năd-ĭz′əm

•diabetesdī′ə-bē′tĭs

•estrogenĕs′trə-jən

•cretinismkrēt′n-ĭz′əm

•craniectomykrā′nē-ĕk′tə-mē

•comakō′mə

•aphasiaə-fā′zhə

•hypnosishĭp-nō′sĭs

•hyperesthesiahī′pər-ĭs-thē′zhə

•intracranialĭn′trə-krā′nē-əl

Place the recording of your pronunciation of the medical terms here:

https://vocaroo.com/i/s0hXRC2d1fSE

Fill in the Blank

•The endocrine system is made up of glands that secrete a type of hormone into the bloodstream.

•Many pathological conditions are caused by or associated with hyposecretion or hypersecretion of specific hormones of the endocrine system.

•The pituitary gland is known as the master gland.

•Neurons are nerve cells.

•Neuroglia are supporting or connective tissue cells of the central nervous system.

•Motor neurons may be described as being efferent processes because they transmit impulses away from the neural cell body to the muscles or organs to be innervated.

•Sensory neurons are sometimes referred to as afferent nerves because they carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the synaptic endings in the central nervous system.

Case Study

To begin, review the medical record located in the Practical Application sections of Chapter 13 and Chapter 14 in the textbook. Then, using the record, answer the questions below. Note: The questions below are different from the questions in the textbook.

Chapter 13

•Who did Matthew state takes insulin in his family?

His dad and grandfather.

•What do the medical terms polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria mean?

Excessive thirst, extreme hunger, frequent urination.

•According to Matthew’s family history, who has heart disease?

His maternal grandmother.

•What two lab test were ordered to rule out diabetes?

Hb A1C and FBS.

•What type of seminar was recommended for Matthew to attend?

Health education.

Chapter 14

•What is Mr. Brown’s diagnosis?

Parkinson Disease

•Mr. Brown has a mild tremor. Which arm is worse?

Left arm.

•How is his gait characterized?

Shuffling strides.

•How long has Mr. Brown been taking the drug Sinemet 25–100 mg?

Last 6 years.

•What did Mr. Brown’s neurological exam indicate?

Mild to moderate impairment in cognition and short-term memory loss.

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