HCM 205 Module Four Worksheet
Neurology and Endocrinology
Write the definition of the medical words.
•adenoma -abenignepithelialtumorinwhichthecellsformrecognizableglandularstructuresorinwhichthecells arederivedfromglandularepithelium
a protein hormone that is synthesized in the pancreas from proinsulin and secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans
any of a group of corticosteroids (as cortisol or dexamethasone) that are involved especially in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, that tend to increase liver glycogen and blood sugar by increasing gluconeogenesis
a female steroid sex hormone that is secreted by the corpus luteum to prepare the endometrium for implantation and later by the placenta during pregnancy to prevent rejection of the developing embryo or fetus
an excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland
a deficient amount in activity of the thyroid gland
a substance secreted by the median eminence of the hypothalamus that regulates the release of ACTH by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
a determination of blood glucose levels after a 8 hour period of fasting
any of various amines (as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) that contain a dihydroxy benzene ring, that are derived from tyrosine, and that function as hormones or neurotransmitters or both
•hypoglossal nerve –
either of the 12th and final pair of cranial nerves which are motor nerves arising from the medulla oblongata and supplying muscles of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in higher vertebrates
•vestibulocochlear (acoustic) nerve –
either of the eighth pair of cranial nerves connecting the inner ear with the brain, transmitting impulses concerned with hearing and balance, and composed of the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve
relating to the part of the automatic nervous system that counterbalances the action of the sympathetic nerves
relating to or denoting the part of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerves arising from ganglia near the middle part of the spinal cord, supplying the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands, and balancing the action of the parasympathetic nerves
a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure
•olfactory nerve –
each of the first pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the smell receptors in the mucous membrane of the nose
•trigeminal nerve –
each of the fifth and largest pair of cranial nerves, supplying the front part of the head and dividing into the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves
•abducens nerve –
each of the sixth pair of cranial nerves, supplying the muscles concerned with the lateral movement of the eyeballs
•oculomotor nerve –
each of the third pair of cranial nerves, supplying most of the muscles around and within the eyeballs
•optic nerve –
each of the second pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye
Directions: Read the medical word. Break the medical word into its word parts and give the meaning of each word part. Then give the definition of the medical word.
Suffix and its meaning: -crin/o to secrete
Prefix and its meaning: endo- within
Medical word definition: the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatorysystemto be carried towards distant target organs
Suffix and its meaning: -megaly enlargement, large
Combining form and its meaning: acr/o extremity
Medical word definition: abnormal growth of the hands, feet, and face, caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland
Suffix and its meaning: -ism condition
Prefix and its meaning: hyper- excessive
Root and its meaning: thyr thyroid, shield; -oid resemble
Medical word definition: overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in a rapid heartbeat and an increased rate of metabolism
Suffix and its meaning: -gen formation, produce
Combining form and its meaning: andr/o man
Medical word definition: a male sex hormone, such as testosterone
Suffix and its meaning: -logy study of
Prefix and its meaning: endr/o within
Combining form and its meaning: crin/o to secrete
Medical word definition: study of the endocrine system
Suffix and its meaning: -in chemical
Combining form and its meaning: somat/o
Root and its meaning: trop turning
Medical word definition: growth stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Suffix and its meaning: -esthesia feeling
Prefix and its meaning: hyper- excessive
Medical word definition: increased feelings of sensory stimuli, such as pain, touch, or sound
Suffix and its meaning: -cele hernia
Combining form and its meaning: mening/o membrane, meninges
Combining form and its meaning: myel/o spinal cord
Medical word definition: a protrusion of meninges and spinal cord through a defect in the spinal column
Suffix and its meaning: -itis inflammation
Root and its meaning: neur nerve
Medical word definition: inflammation of a nerve
Suffix and its meaning: -us pertaining to
Prefix and its meaning: hydro- water
Root and its meaning: cephal head
Medical word definition: a condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain, typically in young children, enlarging the head and sometimes causing brain damage
Suffix and its meaning: -logy study of
Combining form and its meaning: neur/o nerve
Medical word definition: study of the nervous system
Suffix and its meaning: -phagia to eat, swallow
Prefix and its meaning: a- lack of
Medical word definition: loss of lack of the ability to eat or swallow
Provide the correct medical term for each of the following:
•loss/lack of strength: asthenia
•excessive acidity of body fluids: acidosis
•pertaining to the cerebellum: cerebellar
•a clot that travels: embolism
•abnormally small head: microcephaly
•a nerve cell: neurocyte
•pertaining to the pancreas: pancreatic
•pertaining to touch: tactile
•also called antidiuretic hormone: vasopressin
•also called a CVA: stroke
•physician specializing in anesthesia: anesthesiologist
•inflammation of several nerves: neuritis
Match the abbreviation to the definition. Select an answer from the column on the right and write the correct letter on the blank.
•basal metabolic rate H
•diabetes mellitus A
•growth hormone C
•glucose tolerance test B
•cerebral palsy F
•cerebrospinal fluid D
•cerebrovascular accident G
•herniated disk syndrome E
Spell each term correctly in the space provided.
•autonomic nervous system
•coccygeal spinal nerves
Provide the phonetic spelling of the terms below. In addition, using a recording tool, such as Vocaroo, record the following medical terms. For support using Vocaroo, refer to the Vocaroo Tutorial document.
Place the recording of your pronunciation of the medical terms here:
Fill in the Blank
•The endocrine system is made up of glands that secrete a type of hormone into the bloodstream.
•Many pathological conditions are caused by or associated with hyposecretion or hypersecretion of specific hormones of the endocrine system.
•The pituitary gland is known as the master gland.
•Neurons are nerve cells.
•Neuroglia are supporting or connective tissue cells of the central nervous system.
•Motor neurons may be described as being efferent processes because they transmit impulses away from the neural cell body to the muscles or organs to be innervated.
•Sensory neurons are sometimes referred to as afferent nerves because they carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the synaptic endings in the central nervous system.
To begin, review the medical record located in the Practical Application sections of Chapter 13 and Chapter 14 in the textbook. Then, using the record, answer the questions below. Note: The questions below are different from the questions in the textbook.
•Who did Matthew state takes insulin in his family?
His dad and grandfather.
•What do the medical terms polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria mean?
Excessive thirst, extreme hunger, frequent urination.
•According to Matthew’s family history, who has heart disease?
His maternal grandmother.
•What two lab test were ordered to rule out diabetes?
Hb A1C and FBS.
•What type of seminar was recommended for Matthew to attend?
•What is Mr. Brown’s diagnosis?
•Mr. Brown has a mild tremor. Which arm is worse?
•How is his gait characterized?
•How long has Mr. Brown been taking the drug Sinemet 25–100 mg?
Last 6 years.
•What did Mr. Brown’s neurological exam indicate?
Mild to moderate impairment in cognition and short-term memory loss.